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API 650 standard : Welded Tanks for Oil Storage

API 650 Standard overview.

API Standard 650, also known as “Welded Tanks for Oil Storage”, is a well-recognized standard developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) that outlines the guidelines for the design, fabrication, erection, and inspection of welded steel tanks for oil storage. The standard is comprehensive, covering various aspects including material selection, design criteria, welding procedures, and inspection and testing requirements to ensure the safety and integrity of the tanks.

API 650 standard

Key aspects of API 650 include:

  1. Material Selection: The standard specifies that tank shells should be constructed from carbon or low alloy steel with a maximum carbon content of 0.21% to ensure adequate strength, toughness, and resistance to corrosion​​.
  2. Design Criteria: API 650 provides formulas for calculating the minimum required thickness of the tank’s shell, bottom, and roof plates based on design stress, corrosion allowance, and other factors such as the hydrostatic test pressure and maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP)​​.
  3. Fabrication and Construction: The standard offers detailed guidance on welding procedures, non-destructive testing (NDT), and inspection during construction to maintain the quality and compliance of the storage tanks​​.
  4. Inspection, Examination, and Testing: API 650 emphasizes the importance of periodic inspections, examinations, and testing to assess the tank’s condition throughout its service life, helping to identify and address potential issues before they become critical​​.
  5. Impact Test Requirements: The standard mandates an impact test for materials’ weld metal, heat-affected zones (HAZ), and base metal if the Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) is lower than the lowest expected operating temperature, to evaluate the material’s toughness and resistance to fractures in low-temperature conditions​​.
  6. Data Sheet Information: For the design of welded steel storage tanks, API 650 provides guidelines on what information should be included in a datasheet, such as general information, tank design data, material specifications, and details on welding and fabrication, among others​​.
  7. Updates and Training: API 650 standards are periodically updated to incorporate industry advancements and safety improvements. Understanding the fundamentals of this standard is essential for professionals in mechanical engineering, inspection, maintenance, and operations related to storage tanks​​.

Scope , Application and Key Requirements of API 650 standard

The API 650 standard, formally known as “Welded Tanks for Oil Storage,” is developed by the American Petroleum Institute. It is specifically tailored for the design, fabrication, erection, and inspection of welded steel tanks that are used for oil storage. Here is an overview of its scope, application, and key requirements:

Scope and Application:

  • Intended Use: The standard is intended for tanks that are used in the storage of petroleum, petroleum products, and other liquid products.
  • Tank Design: It applies to vertical, cylindrical, aboveground, closed- and open-top welded storage tanks.
  • Pressure and Temperature: The tanks are designed for internal pressures approximating atmospheric pressure (not exceeding the weight of the roof plates) and in non-refrigerated service with a maximum design temperature of 200°F (93°C) or less.
  • Support: The standard applies to tanks whose entire bottom is uniformly supported.

Key Requirements:

  • Material Requirements: Specifies suitable materials for tank construction, focusing on strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance.
  • Design Criteria: Provides formulas and guidelines for calculating required thicknesses of tank walls, roof, and bottom, considering internal pressure, wind load, and seismic considerations.
  • Fabrication Details: Outlines acceptable welding procedures, joint designs, and construction practices to ensure tank integrity.
  • Inspection and Testing: Details inspection methods and testing procedures to ensure compliance with the standard, including non-destructive testing (NDT) and hydrostatic testing.
  • Tank Appendages: Includes specifications for tank accessories like nozzles, manways, vents, and ladders to ensure compatibility and safety.
  • Documentation: Specifies required documentation and data reports to ensure traceability and compliance.
  • Annexes: Provides additional design options and requirements through annexes that cover aspects such as seismic design, tank anchorage, and design options for the tank bottom, roof, and shell.

The standard emphasizes flexibility in tank sizes and designs, allowing purchasers to select tanks that best meet their needs while ensuring safety and economy. The annexes provide design options and additional requirements, which become mandatory only when specified by the purchaser.

The API 650 is regularly updated to reflect advancements in the industry and safety improvements, making it essential for professionals involved in tank design, construction, and maintenance to stay informed about the latest revisions​​​​.

Brief content of API 650 standard

The API 650 standard, formally titled “Welded Tanks for Oil Storage,” is an extensively recognized guideline developed by the American Petroleum Institute. It provides comprehensive specifications for the design, construction, maintenance, and inspection of welded steel storage tanks used primarily in the oil industry. The standard ensures tanks are constructed safely and reliably, capable of storing various products at different pressures and temperatures.

Key components of the API 650 standard include:

  1. Scope and Coverage: Defines the types of tanks and storage conditions the standard covers, including operational pressures and temperatures.
  2. Material Specifications: Details the types of materials suitable for tank construction, focusing on strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance.
  3. Design Criteria: Provides formulas and guidelines for determining the required thickness of the tank walls, roof, and bottom, accounting for various factors like product stored, internal pressure, wind load, and seismic considerations.
  4. Fabrication Details: Outlines the welding procedures, joint designs, and construction practices to ensure the structural integrity of the tank.
  5. Inspection and Testing: Specifies the inspection methods and testing procedures necessary to verify the tank’s conformance to the standard, including non-destructive testing (NDT) and hydrostatic testing.
  6. Tank Appendages: Includes requirements for tank accessories such as nozzles, manways, vents, and ladders, ensuring their compatibility with the tank design and safety standards.
  7. Markings and Documentation: Details the required documentation, data reports, and marking on the tanks to ensure traceability and compliance.
  8. Annexes: The standard includes several annexes that provide additional guidelines on specific aspects such as seismic design, tank anchorage, and alternative designs for the tank bottom, roof, and shell.

This summary offers a high-level overview of the API 650 standard’s content. For comprehensive details, it’s recommended to refer to the actual standard document, which provides in-depth information on each section and aspect of tank design and construction. Professionals involved in tank design, construction, and maintenance typically refer to the full API 650 document for specific requirements and guidelines.

API 650 standard latest update version

The latest version of the API Standard 650 is the 13th Edition, which was published in March 2020. This edition includes all amendments and changes up to January 2021. The API 650 standard provides comprehensive guidelines for the design, fabrication, erection, and inspection of welded tanks for oil storage, focusing on those with internal pressures approximating atmospheric pressure. It is applicable to tanks with a uniformly supported bottom and in non-refrigerated service with a maximum design temperature of 200°F or less. The standard is designed to ensure tanks provide adequate safety and reasonable economy for the storage of petroleum, petroleum products, and other liquid products​​​​.

 

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