WELCOME TO PIPING TECHNOLOGY !!!

Piping and Pipeline Engineering – George A. Antaki

Piping and Pipeline Engineering
Design, Construction, Maintenance, Integrity, and Repair” by George A. Antaki is a comprehensive book that covers various aspects of piping and pipeline systems in the field of mechanical engineering. The book addresses the design, construction, maintenance, integrity, and repair of piping and pipeline systems.

Here are some key topics covered in the book:

Design: The book discusses the principles and methodologies involved in the design of piping and pipeline systems. This includes considerations for material selection, sizing, and layout.
Construction: It covers the construction phase of piping and pipeline projects, including welding techniques, fabrication processes, and quality control measures.
Maintenance: The book explores the importance of regular maintenance practices for ensuring the optimal performance and longevity of piping and pipeline systems.
Integrity: Integrity management is a crucial aspect of pipeline engineering, and the book delves into methods for assessing and maintaining the integrity of pipelines, with a focus on safety and reliability.
Repair: In cases where damage or defects occur, the book provides insights into the repair processes, including welding repairs, and considerations for maintaining the structural integrity of the system.

Contents
CHAPTER 1 CODES, STANDARDS AND PRACTICE
1.1 A Brief History of Piping Technology

1.2 National Codes, Standards and Guides

1.3 Piping and Pipeline Codes

1.4 Scope of ASME B31 Codes

1.5 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

1.6 Federal and State Laws

1.7 ASME Council on Codes and Standards

1.8 ASME B16 Standards

1.9 API Standards and Recommended Practices

1.10 Manufacturers Standardization Society

1.11 Pipe Fabrication Institute Standards

1.12 American Institute of Steel Construction

1.13 American Concrete Institute

1.14NACE

1.15 Material Institutes

1.16 National Board

1.17 Flow Control Institute Standard

1.18 Hydraulic Institute Pump Standards

1.19 References

CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTALS
2.1 Competence

2.2 At the Engineering Level

2.2.1 Materials

2.2.2 Design

2.2.2.1 System Design

2.2.2.2 Component Design

2.2.3 Construction

2.2.4 Quality Control Inspections

2.2.5 Preoperational Testing

2.2.5.1 Mechanical Testing

2.2.5.2 Operational Testing

2.2.6 Maintenance

2.2.7 Operation

2.3 At the Corporate Level

CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS
Introduction: A Good Pastry

3.1 Ferrous Pipe

3.1.1 Wrought Iron

3.1.2 Cast Iron

3.1.3 Steel Pipe and Fittings

3.1.3.1 Essential Characteristics

3.1.3.2 Carbon Steels

3.1.3.3 Alloy Steels

3.1.3.4 High Alloy Steels

3.1.4 Steel Line Pipe

3.2 Non-Ferrous Pipe

3.2.1 Aluminum Alloys

3.2.2 Nickel Alloys

3.2.3 Copper Alloys

3.3 Fabrication of Steel Pipe

3.3.1 Pipe Size

3.3.2 Seamless Pipe

3.3.3 Seam Welded Pipe

3.3.4 Documentation

3.3.5 Microstructure

3.4 Fabrication of Pipe Fittings and Components

3.4.1 Forging

3.4.2 Casting

3.4.3 Sheet Metal

3.4.4 Pipe Specifications

3.4.5 Machining and Finishing

3.4.6 Base Metal Imperfections

3.5 Mechanical Properties

3.5.1 Strength

3.5.2 Hardness

3.5.3 Toughness

3.5.3.1 Charpy V-Notch Toughness

3.5.3.2 Drop Weight Test

3.5.3.3 Fracture Toughness

3.5.4 Fatigue Strength

3.5.5 Physical Properties

3.6 Procurement

3.6.1 Procurement Specification

3.6.2 Supplier Assessment

3.7 References

CHAPTER 4 INTERNAL PRESSURE
4.1 Pressure Design of Piping

4.1.1 Thin Wall Approximation

4.1.2 Pipeline Design Equation

4.1.3 Yield and Wall Thickness

4.2 Pressure Design of Plant Piping

4.2.1 Lame’s Formula

4.2.2 Early Design Equation

4.2.3 Piping Design Equations

4.2.4 Allowable Stress

4.2.5 Wall Thickness Allowance

4.3 Yield and Burst Pressure

4.3.1 The Von Mises Yield Pressure

4.3.2 Burst Pressure

4.4 Pressure Design of Plastic Pipe

4.5 Pressure Rating

4.5.1 Pressure Rating

4.5.2 Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings

4.5.3 Steel Butt Welded Fittings

4.5.4 Steel Flange Ratings

4.5.5 Socket Welding and Threaded Fittings

4.5.6 Valves

4.5.6.1 Shell Strength

4.5.6.2 Seat Tightness

4.5.7 Unlisted Components

4.6 Pressure Stress in Fittings

4.6.1 Pipe Elbows and Bends

4.6.2 Branch Connections and Nozzles

4.6.3 Reinforcement of Branch Connections

4.6.4 End Fillets

4.7 High Pressure Design

4.8 Design Pressure

4.8.1 Design Scenarios

4.8.2 Pressure Excursions

4.9 Over-Pressure Protection

4.10 Burst Energy

4.11 Pipe Specification

4.12 Valve Specification

4.13 References

CHAPTER 5 EXTERNAL PRESSURE

5.1 Buckling Pressure

5.2 ASME Code Design

5.3 References

CHAPTER 6 LAYOUT AND SUPPORTS
6.1 Spacing of Pipe Supports

6.2 Sustained Stress

6.3 Stress Indices

6.4 Design Standards

6.5 Selection of Pipe Supports

6.5.1 Variable Spring

6.5.2 Constant Load Hanger

6.5.3 Rigid Frames

6.5.4 Road Hangers

6.5.5 Pipe Rolls

6.5.6 Rigid Struts

6.5.7 Vibration Dampers

6.5.8 Snubbers

6.5.9 Anchors

6.5.10 Saddles

6.6 Design of Standard Support

6.7 Design of Steel Frames

6.7.1 Design

6.7.2 Construction

6.8 Anchorage to Concrete

6.9 Layout Rules of Good Practice

6.9.1 Equipment Elevations

6.9.2 Equipment Spacing

6.9.3 Piping

6.9.4 Valves

6.9.5 Pump Piping

6.9.6 Compressor Piping

6.10 References

CHAPTER 7 FLEXIBILITY AND FATIGUE
7.1 Layout for Flexibility

7.2 Simplified Flexibility Analysis

7.3 Fatigue

7.4 Smooth Specimen Fatigue

7.5 Pipe Component Fatigue

7.6 Fatigue Strength of Socket Welds

7.7 Fatigue Strength of Butt Welds

7.8 ASME B31 Fatigue Rules

7.9 Fracture Mechanics Approach

7.10 Corrosion Fatigue

7.11 Shakedown

7.12 Cold Spring

7.13 Through-Wall Temperatures

7.14 Creep Damage

7.15 Pipe Insulation

7.16 Expansion Joints

7.17 References

CHAPTER 8 VIBRATION
8.1 Root Cause

8.2 Mechanically Induced Vibration

8.3 Vibration Analysis

8.4 Hydraulic Induced Vibration

8.4.1 Vane and Piston Motion

8.4.2 Turbulence Induced Vibration

8.4.3 Cavitation and Air Pockets

8.4.4 Acoustic Resonance

8.4.5 Breathing Mode

8.4.6 Valve Noise

8.5 Measuring Vibration

8.5.1 Measuring Displacement

8.5.2 Measuring Velocity

8.5.3 Measuring Acceleration

8.5.4 Strain Gages

8.5.5 Signal Conditioners and Analyzers

8.6 Assessing Vibration Severity

8.6.1 Severity Charts

8.6.2 Pipe Vibration Analysis

8.7 Prevention and Mitigation

8.7.1 Eliminate the Source

8.7.2 Good Layout and Supports

8.7.3 Preoperational Testing

8.7.4 Reducing Turbulence and Cavitation

8.7.5 Pulsation Damper

8.7.6 Damping

8.7.7 Flexible Connections

8.8 References

CHAPTER 9 FLUID TRANSIENTS
9.1 Single Liquid Phase

9.1.1 Bulk or Propagative Flow

9.1.2 Pressure Change in Bulk Flow

9.1.3 Waterhammer

9.1.4 Valve Characteristics

9.1.5 One-to-Two Phase Transient

9.1.6 Pump Fill Rate

9.1.7 Prevention of Liquid Waterhammer

9.2 Two-Phase Vapor-Liquid Waterhammer

9.2.1 Steam-Water Waterhammer

9.2.2 Case Histories

9.2.3 Predicting the Effects of Two-Phase Transients

9.2.4 Steam System Layout

9.3 Non-Condensable Two-Phase Waterhammer

9.3.1 Flow Regime

9.3.2 Analysis of Slug Flow

9.3.3 Trapped Air

9.4 Stress Analysis

9.5 References

CHAPTER 10 WIND DESIGN
10.1 Wind Damage

10.2 Wind Pressure

10.3 Vortex Shedding

10.4 Wind-Borne Missiles

10.5 References

CHAPTER 11 SEISMIC DESIGN AND RETROFIT
11.1 The Seismic Challenge

11.2 Seismic Specification

11.2.1 Project Specification

11.2.2 Seismic Input

11.2.3 Seismic Qualification

11.2.3.1Operability

11.2.3.2 Leak Tightness

11.2.3.3 Position Retention

11.2.4 Material Condition

11.2.5 Interactions

11.2.6 Documentation

11.2.7 Maintenance

11.2.8 Definition of Common Terms

11.3 Rules of Good Practice

11.4 Seismic Analysis Techniques

11.5 Seismic Input Based on IBC

11.6 Seismic Response Spectra

11.6.1 Seismic Input

11.6.2 Modal and Directional Combinations

11.7 Seismic Qualification

11.8 Shake Table Testing

11.9 Seismic Interactions

11.9.1 Description

11.9.2 Interaction Review

11.9.3 Falling Interactions

11.9.4 Rocking or Swing Impact

11.9.5 Significant Impact

11.10 References

CHAPTER 12 EXPLOSIONS
12.1 Deflagration and Detonation

12.2 Dynamic Loads

12.3 Dynamic Properties

12.4 Pressure Limits

12.5 Design Criteria

12.5.1 Quasi-Static Load

12.5.2 Impulsive Load

12.5.3 Fracture

12.6 Explosion Protection

12.7 External Explosions

12.8 References

CHAPTER 13 SUBSEA PIPELINES
13.1 Subsea Pipeline Safety

13.2 Design Process

13.3 Internal Pressure

13.4 External Pressure

13.5 Pipe Lowering

13.6 On-Bottom Stability
13.6.1 Objective

13.6.2 Static Analysis

13.7 Pipeline Flotation

13.8 Fatigue Design

13.9 Hook and Pull

13.10 References

CHAPTER 14 BURIED PIPE

14.1 To Bury or not to Bury

14.2 Internal Pressure

14.3 Soil Loads

14.4 Surface Loads

14.5 Thermal Expansion and Contraction

14.6 Ground Movement

14.7 Seismic

14.8 References

CHAPTER 15 WELDING
15.1 Shop and Field Welding

15.2 Welding Processes

15.2.1 Shielded Metal Arc Welding

15.2.2 Submerged Arc Welding

15.2.3 Gas Metal Arc Welding

15.2.4 Flux Core Arc Welding

15.2.5 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

15.2.6 Welding Parameters

15.2.7 Gas Purging

15.2.8 Mechanized Welding

15.3 Weld Defects

15.3.1 Weld Metallurgy

15.3.2 Porosities ‘

15.3.3 Cracks

15.3.3.1 Hot Cracking

15.3.3.2 Delayed Cracking

15.3.4 Inclusions

15.3.5 Root Concavity and Undercut

15.3.6 Incomplete Penetration

15.3.7 Lack of Fusion

15.3.8 Shrinkage

15.4 Codes, Standards and Practice

15.4.1 ASMEB3 land API 1104

15.4.2 American Welding Society

15.4.3 Electrode Nomenclature

15.4.4 Welder and Weld Procedure Qualification

15.5 Post-Weld Heat Treatment

15.6 In-Service Welding

15.7 Surfacing Techniques

15.8 References

CHAPTER 16 EXAMINATION
16.1 Visual Examination

16.2 Magnetic Particles Testing

16.3 Liquid Penetrant Testing

16.4 Radiographic Testing

16.5 Ultrasonic Testing

16.6 Eddy Current Testing

16.7 Acoustic Emission Testing

16.8 Thermography

16.9 Measurement Accuracy

16.10 Type and Extent of Examinations

16.11 Acceptance Criteria

16.12 Personnel Certification

16.13 Pipeline Pigs

16.13.1 Utility Pigs

16.13.2 Smart Pigs

16.14 References

CHAPTER 17 PIPE FLANGE
17.1 Flange Standards

17.2 Flange Types

17.3 Flange Gaskets

17.3.1 Selection Factors

17.3.2 Non-Metallic Gaskets

17.3.3 Semi-Metallic Gaskets

17.3.4 Metallic Gaskets

17.4 Flange Faces

17.5 Flange Ratings

17.6 Flange Bolt Torque

17.7 External Loads

17.8 Assembly of Pipe Flanges

17.8.1 Assembly Steps

17.8.2 Closing the Gap

17.9 Nuts and Bolts

17.9.1 Definitions

17.9.2 Bolt Fabrication

17.9.3 Bolt Specifications

17.9.4 Nut, Washer Specifications

17.9.5 Restrictions

17.9.6 Corrosion Prevention

17.10 Maintenance

17.10.1 Flange Assembly Sequence

17.10.2 Replacing a Gasket

17.10.3 Welding a Slip-On Flange

17.10.4 Leakage Diagnostics

17.10.5 Refinishing Flange Faces

17.11 References

CHAPTER 18 MECHANICAL JOINTS
18.1 What they Are

18.2 Swage Firings

18.3 Grooved Fittings

18.4 In Conclusion

CHAPTER 19 LEAK AND PRESSURE TEST
19.1 Leak Test and Pressure Test

19.2 Leak and Pressure Test Methods

19.3 Choice of Test Method

19.4 Conduct of Test

19.4.1 Plan the Test

19.4.2 Conduct the Test

19.4.3 Plan for Leaks

19.4.4 Drain and Dry

19.5 Isolation

19.6 Locating Leaks Underground

19.7 References

CHAPTER 20 DEGRADATION IN SERVICE
20.1 A Critical Decision

20.2 General Corrosion

20.2.1 Progressive Corrosion

20.2.2 Passivating Coating

20.3 Local Corrosion

20.4 Galvanic Corrosion

20.5 Erosion Corrosion

20.6 Environmental Effects

20.7 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

20.8 High Temperature Effects

20.9 Mechanical Damage

20.10 Lining and Coating

20.10.1 Properties

20.10.2 Liquid Organics

20.10.3 Multilayer Coating

20.10.4 Metallic Coatings

20.11 Corrosion Inhibitors

20.12 Material Selection

20.13 References

CHAPTER 21 FITNESS-FOR-SERVICE
21.1 Fitness-for-Service

21.2 Wall Thinning

21.2.1 Measurement

21.2.2 Ductile Fracture Initiation

21.2.3 Longitudinal Thinning

21.2.4 Circumferential Thinning

21.2.5 Cautions

21.3 Crack Flaws

21.3.1 Brittle and Ductile Fracture

21.3.2 Fundamental Approach

21.3.3 Stress Intensity

21.3.4 Fitness-for-Service Evaluation

21.3.5 Crack Arrest

21.3.6 Fatigue

21.4 Mechanical Damage

21.4.1 Ripple

21.4.2 Buckle and Wrinkle

21.4.3 Dent

21.4.4 Dent with Gouge

21.5 References

CHAPTER 22 MAINTENANCE, RELIABILITY AND FAILURE ANALYSIS
22.1 Case History

22.2 Maintenance Objective

22.3 Maintenance Plan

22.4 Maintenance Strategies

22.5 Corrective Maintenance

22.6 Failure Modes

22.7 Pro-Active Maintenance

22.7.1 Preventive or Predictive Maintenance

22.7.2 Inspection Checklists

22.7.2.1 Piping and Vessels

22.7.2.2 Supports

22.8 PDM Techniques

22.9 Reliability

22.10 Maintenance and the Construction Codes

22.11 Elements of Failure Analysis

22.11.1 Data Collection

22.11.2 Visual Examination, Macrofractography and NDE

22.11.3 Metallography and Microfractography

22.11.4 Chemical Analysis

22.11.5 Mechanical Tests

22.11.6 Stress and Fracture Analysis

22.11.7 Improvements

22.12 References

CHAPTER 23 REPAIR TECHNIQUES
23.1 Repair Strategy

23.2 Replacement

23.3 Grinding Out Defects

23.4 Weld Overlay

23.5 Full Encirclement Sleeve

23.6 Fillet Welded Patch

23.7 Flush Welded Patch

23.8 Welded Leak Box

23.9 Mechanical Clamp

23.10 Composite Overwrap

23.11 Buried Pipe Rehabilitation

23.12 Brushed and Sprayed Lining and Coating

23.13 Pipe Straightening

23.14 References

CHAPTER 24 PLASTIC PIPE
24.1 Plastic Form

24.2 Size

24.3 Chemical Resistance

24.4 Physical and Mechanical Properties

24.5 Pressure Design

24.6 Pressure Cycling Fatigue

24.7 Pressure Design of Fittings

24.8 Support Spacing

24.9 Fabrication and Examination

24.9.1 Solvent Cementing

24.9.2 Coated Adhesive

24.9.3 Butt Strap Adhesive

24.9.4 Hot Plate Butt Fused Joint

24.9.5 Hot Plate Socket Joint

24.9.6 Hot Air Welding

24.9.7 Electrofusion

24.9.8 Flange Joints

24.10 Bonding Qualification

24.11 References

CHAPTER 25 VALVES
25.1 Overview

25.2 Gate Valves

25.3 Globe Valves

25.4 Plug Valves

25.5 Ball Valves

25.6 Butterfly Valves

25.7 Diaphragm Valves

25.8 Check Valves

25.9 Safety and Relief Valves

25.10 Control Valves

25.11 Sizing Gas Control Valves

25.12 Valve Actuators

25.13 Closure Test

25.14 References

APPENDIX STANDARD PIPE SIZES

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